Strong associations between keratoconus and several conditions of autoimmune diseases and allergic immune disorders may point to the role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of keratoconus, suggests a new study from the
The association between keratoconus and the following disorders was statistically significant: rheumatoid arthritis (OR=8.1; 95-percent confidence interval: 1.5 to 44.2), ulcerative colitis (OR=12.1; CI: 1.3 to 116), autoimmune chronic active hepatitis (OR=6; CI: 1.01 to 36), Hashimoto thyroiditis (OR=2; CI: 1.2 to 3.3), arthropathy (OR=1.4; CI: 1.1 to 1.8), asthma (OR=2.1; CI: 1.4 to 3.2), environmental allergy (OR=1.3; CI: 1.02 to 1.75) and irritable bowel syndrome (OR=5; CI: 2.1 to 12.1). Multiple sclerosis (OR=2; CI: 0.2 to 22) and Crohn's disease (OR=1.6; CI: 0.3 to 8.3) were more prevalent among patients with keratoconus but did not reach statistical significance.
Nemet AY, Vinker S, Bahar I, Kaiserman I.
Adding Latanoprost to Timolol Increases IOP Reduction Efficacy
Concomitant use of latanoprost and timolol leads to additional intraocular pressure reduction compared to the fixed combination of the drugs, say researchers at the
Adding 0.005% latanoprost in the evening to 0.5% timolol twice daily resulted in a pooled change of -6.3 mmHg (-7.1 to -5.5 mmHg, mean IOP curve); switching to the fixed combination of 0.5% timolol and 0.005% latanoprost in the morning resulted in a pooled change of -2.8 mmHg (-3.3 to -2.3 mmHg, mean IOP curve). Starting with any fixed combination of 0.5% timolol and a PGA in the morning resulted in a pooled change of -8.4 mmHg (-9.1 to -7.6 mmHg, mean IOP curve) and varied between -9.1 mmHg (-9.9 to -8.2 mmHg, highest) and -7.9 mmHg (-8.5 to -7.2 mmHg, lowest); starting with any fixed combination of 0.5% timolol and a PGA in the evening resulted in a pooled change of -8.6 (-9.2 to -8.0 mmHg, mean IOP curve) and varied between -10.1 mmHg (-11.0 to -9.2 mmHg, highest) and -7.3 mmHg (-8.1 to -6.4 mmHg, lowest).
Webers CA, Beckers HJ, Zeegers MP, et al.