Volume 10, Number 6
June 2014


WELCOME to Review of Ophthalmology's Retina Online e-newsletter. Each month, Medical Editor Philip Rosenfeld, MD, PhD, and our editors provide you with this timely and easily accessible report to keep you up to date on important information affecting the care of patients with vitreoretinal disease.

CenterVue Receives FDA Clearance of Next-Generation Macular Integrity Assessment
CenterVue Inc. has been granted FDA 510(k) clearance for its next-generation Macular Integrity Assessment (MAIA)...

Roslin Cells and Pfizer Sign Cell Therapy Manufacturing Contract
Roslin Cells has signed a contract with Pfizer Inc...

And More...

Switch from Intravitreal Ranibizumab to Aflibercept for Treatment of Neovascular AMD

The authors of the following study sought to describe the treatment response to aflibercept in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration that showed insufficient or diminishing treatment effects under ranibizumab.

Between December 2012 and June 2013, they collected and retrospectively reviewed clinical data such as visual acuity or central subfield retinal thickness on optical coherence tomography scans for all patients receiving intravitreal injections of aflibercept after previous treatment with ranibizumab. They analyzed the data for the time frame before, during and shortly after the aflibercept injections. Of particular interest was the comparison of clinical features under ongoing ranibizumab treatment to the time during aflibercept treatment.

A total of 71 eyes of 65 patients were included in the study. The authors noted that all eyes had previous ranibizumab injections in their medical history, the average number of which was nine (range three to 43). They also reported that for the total group, the mean visual acuity before the first ranibizumab injection was 0.54 logMAR, and after the last ranibizumab injection was 0.57 logMAR. Mean VA changed from 0.47 logMAR before the first aflibercept injection to 0.25 logMAR after the last aflibercept injection. Central subfield retinal thickness on OCT changed from a mean of 417.28 µm to 349.52 µm under ranibizumab treatment and from 338.76 µm to 272.00 µm under aflibercept treatment. Interestingly, 33% of cases that did not show a functional improvement under ranibizumab therapy gained visual acuity after aflibercept treatment.

In conclusion, aflibercept appears to be an effective choice for patients with neovascular AMD who were resistant to previous therapy of ranibizumab. The longevity of this effect still remains questionable.

Source: Heussen FM, Shao Q, Ouyang Y, et al. Clinical outcomes after switching treatment from intravitreal ranibizumab to aflibercept in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2014;252(6):909–915.

Reticular Pseudodrusen and GA in Fellow Eyes of Individuals with Unilateral CNV

To determine whether reticular pseudodrusen confer an increased risk of progression to late-stage age-related macular degeneration in fellow eyes of those recently diagnosed with unilateral choroidal neovascularization, the following retrospective study was conducted.

It included 200 consecutive participants with CNV secondary to AMD in one eye and no signs of late-stage AMD in the fellow eye. Clinical examination and comprehensive retinal imaging—including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, near-infrared reflectance (NIR), and color fundus photography—were performed at baseline and every follow-up visit. Incidence of geographic atrophy and CNV in the fellow eye were the main outcome measures.

It was reported that mean age ± standard deviation was 77 ± seven years, and 61% of the cohort were female. Fifty-eight percent (n=116) had RPD, 68% had drusen of 125 µm or more, 36% had pigmentary changes, 10% had both drusen of 125 µm or more and pigmentary changes, and 17% had only RPD in their fellow eyes. After a mean follow-up of 2.3 years, CNV developed in 36% of patients and GA developed in 14% of patients. Those with RPD demonstrated late-stage AMD (61% vs. 33.4% p< 0.001) and GA (22.4% with RPD vs. 2.4% without RPD; p<0.001) more often. The presence of reticular pseudodrusen was an independent risk factor for the development of GA (hazard ratio [HR], 4.93; p=0.042), but not for CNV (HR, 1.19; p=0.500), at least within the follow-up of this study. Both drusen of 125 µm or more and pigmentary changes at baseline were significant risk factors for the development of CNV and GA (HR, 1.96 to 11.73; p<0.020).

To conclude, reticular pseudodrusen seem to confer an increased risk of progression to GA, in addition to drusen and pigmentary changes. The presence of RPD needs to be taken into account when discussing a patient's prognosis and planning management.

Source: Finger RP, Wu Z, Luu CD, et al. Reticular pseudodrusen: a risk factor for geographic atrophy in fellow eyes of individuals with unilateral choroidal neovascularization. Ophthalmology. 2014; 121(6):1252–1256.

Vitreoretinal Interface Changes in GA

Geographic atrophy is the end-stage manifestation of atrophic age-related macular degeneration. The disease progresses slowly over time, eventually causing loss of central vision. Its cause and patho-mechanism are not fully known. Previous studies have suggested that vitreoretinal traction may contribute to the progression of neovascular AMD. The aim of this study was to examine whether an association between changes at the vitreoretinal interface, in particular traction, and the characteristics and progression of GA in eyes with dry AMD can be established.

Researchers in Switzerland conducted this clinic-based prospective cohort study, which enrolled 97 patients (age range, 61 to 90 years; mean, 78.4 years) with GA secondary to dry AMD. Patients exhibiting neovascular signs on fluorescein angiography in either eye were excluded.

The researchers examined VRI changes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. They examined characteristics of GA using fundus autofluorescence imaging and performed all imaging using a Spectralis SLO+OCT device (Heidelberg Engineering). Additionally, they measured GA area using the Region Finder (Heidelberg Engineering) software native to the Spectralis platform. Area and increase in area of GA were the main outcome measures.

The study researchers found vitreoretinal traction in 39 eyes (40%) and reported that the GA area at baseline was 6.65 ± 5.64 mm² in eyes with VRT and 5.73 ± 4.72 mm² in eyes with no VRT. They also noted that the annual rate of progression of GA area progression was 2.99 ± 0.66 mm² in eyes with VRT and 1.45 ± 0.67mm² in eyes without VRT. Differences between groups in both parameters were statistically significant (n=97 total number of eyes; p<0.001). Multiple regression analysis confirmed this finding (B=0.714, p<0.001; F3,93=72.542, p<0.001; adjusted R²=0.691).

The result of this study indicate an association between VRT and an increased rate of progression of GA area in dry AMD. Monitoring VRT may contribute to an improved estimate of the prospective time of visual loss and to a better timing of emerging therapies in dry AMD.

Source: Abdillahi H, Enzmann V, Wittwer VV, et al. Vitreoretinal interface changes in geographic atrophy. Ophthalmology. 2014; May 26. [Epub ahead of print].

Changes in FAF Following Treatments for PCV

Japanese investigators evaluated changes in fundus autofluorescence after treatments for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. They found that elimination of the hyperautofluorescent ring is highly associated with the resolution of the polyp on indocyanine green angiography.

A total of 36 eyes of 35 patients with treatment-naïve PCV underwent intravitreal injection of ranibizumab, photodynamic therapy or a combination of both treatments. The investigators compared FAF and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) at baseline with those obtained 12 months later about the changes at the affected lesion.

The study investigators detected 88 polyps in the 36 eyes on ICGA at baseline, and 65 (73.9%) of those showed centered hypoautofluorescence and a circumferential hyperautofluorescent ring on FAF. Twelve months later, ICGA revealed resolution of 42 of those 65 polyps. Of those 42 resolved polyps, 30 hyperautofluorescent rings (71.4%) were eliminated concurrently with the resolution of polyp. Statistical analysis revealed that an elimination of the hyperautofluorescent ring was more frequently observed in association with the resolved polyps than with the persistent polyps (p<0.0001). All the hypoautofluorescent findings corresponding to branching vascular networks at baseline were unchanged during the follow-up period.

The investigators propose that FAF has a potential as a noninvasive method of evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of treatments for PCV.

Source: Yamagishi T, Koizumi H, Yamazaki T, Kinoshita S. Changes in fundus autofluorescence after treatments for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014;98(6):780–784.

Changes in the Retinal Microstructure of Eyes with Resolved BRVO

Scientists in Japan conducted this prospective, observational, cross-sectional case series to assess macular photoreceptor abnormalities in eyes with resolved branch retinal vein occlusion using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

After complete resolution of macular edema and retinal hemorrhage, 21 eyes (21 patients) with BRVO underwent full ophthalmologic examination and imaging with optical coherence tomography and a prototype AO-SLO system. Cone density and spatial mosaic organization were assessed using AO-SLO images.

Regular parafoveal cone mosaic patterns were clearly visualized with the prototype AO-SLO imaging system in the BRVO-unaffected side, the scientists reported. However, in the side of the retina previously affected by the BRVO, they observed that cone mosaic patterns were disorganized and dark regions missing wave-guiding cones were apparent. Additionally, retinal capillaries were dilated, no longer had a uniform caliber, and had less direct paths through the retina. In the affected side, parafoveal cone density was significantly decreased, compared with the corresponding retinal area on the unaffected side (p<0.001). Furthermore, the hexagonal Voronoi domain ratio and the nearest-neighbor distances were significantly lower than in the unaffected side (p<0.05). These parameters were also correlated with photoreceptor layer integrity in the parafovea.

After BRVO-associated retinal hemorrhage and macular edema resolved, affected parafoveal cone density decreases and the cone mosaic spatial arrangement is disrupted, becoming more irregular. These cone microstructural abnormalities may extend to parafovea in the BRVO-unaffected side.

Source: Akagi-Kurashige Y, Tsujikawa A, Oota S, et al. Retinal microstructrual changes in eyes with resolved branch retinal vein occlusion: an adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopy study. Am J Ophthalmology. 2014;157(6):1239–1249.

Effect of Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection for DME on Fellow Uninjected Eyes

Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor compounds are routinely used for the treatment of diabetic macular edema. In Israel, researchers aimed to evaluate for the existence and magnitude of treatment effect on fellow uninjected eyes.

They retrospectively evaluated a consecutive group of patients with bilateral DME who received unilateral bevacizumab injections. Data collected included demographics, ophthalmic and systemic findings, and optical coherence tomography measurements of macular thickness.

All told, they evaluated 35 patients. Mean follow-up was 245 days (range: 30 to 800), and the mean number of bevacizumab injections was 3.6 (range: one to 11). At the end of follow-up, the mean (SD) OCT central subfield thickness reduced by 72 ± 112 µm in the injected eye (from 469 ± 139 to 397 ± 120 µm; p=0.001), while in the non-injected eye it reduced by 49 ± 75 µm (from 380 ± 130 to 331 ± 106 µm p<0.001). Sixteen injected eyes (45.7&37;) showed central subfield thickness reduction of ≥50 µm while 10 (28.6%) non-injected eyes showed such thickness reduction. Improved VA following treatment was detected in 14 (40%) injected eyes and in 15 (43%) non-injected eyes.

Unilateral bevacizumab injections in patients with bilateral DME are often associated with bilateral response, the researchers determined.

Source: Hanhart J, Tiosano L, Averbukh E, et al. Fellow eye effect of unilateral intravitreal bevacizumab injection in eyes with diabetic macular edema. Eye. 2014;May 23. [Epub ahead of print]. DOI: 10.1038/eye.2014.94.

Macular Hypotrophy After ILM Removal for DME

The following retrospective comparative study was conducted to compare the anatomic and functional effects of three different approaches to nontractional diabetic macular edema.

Sixty eyes of 60 patients diagnosed with cystoid DME and treated with 1.25 mg/mL intravitreal bevacizumab (Group A), laser photocoagulation (Group B) or vitrectomy with inner limiting membrane peeling (Group C) were included in the study. Changes in number of Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters, central macular thickness, largest diameter of the intraretinal cysts (IC) and choroidal thickness were investigated. Additionally, analyses were performed during follow-up visits at months one, three, six, nine and 12.

It was reported that visual acuity only significantly improved in Group A at the last follow-up (p=0.004) and that central macular thickness significantly decreased in every group throughout the follow-up period. Differences in central macular thickness between Groups A and B (p<0.01), A and C (p<0.01), and B and C (p<0.01) were significant. Intraretinal cysts also significantly decreased in each group throughout the follow-up period. Differences in IC size between Groups A and B (p=0.8), A and C (p=0.1), and B and C (p=0.1) were not significant. Choroidal thickness did not undergo any significant change in any group throughout the follow-up period. A significant correlation was also found in Group A between best-corrected visual acuity at month 12 and baseline central macular thickness (r=0.3; p=0.006), and in Group B between postoperative best-corrected visual acuity at month 12 and baseline IC size (r=0.8; p<0.01, negatively correlated at 92.4%).

According to this study's retrospective data, DME with intraretinal cysts >390 µm should not be treated with vitrectomy with ILM peeling because this may induce subfoveal atrophy, defined as the “Floor Effect,” and subsequent visual deterioration.

Source: Romano MR, Romano V, Vallejo-Garcia JL, et al. Macular hypotrophy after internal limiting membrange removal for diabetic macular edema. Retina. 2014; 34(6):1043–1260.

Anti-Angiogenic Therapy and Choroidal Thickness in Diabetic Retinopathy

To analyze the effect of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents in submacular choroidal thickness of diabetic retinopathy patients, the authors of this cross-sectional study divided 25 DR patients (50 eyes) into two groups according to DR stage and previous treatments: nonproliferative DR and diffuse diabetic macular edema in both eyes, submitted to macular laser in both eyes and anti-VEGF injection only in one eye (nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy + diabetic macular edema group, n=11); and proliferative DR in both eyes, treated with panretinal photocoagulation in both eyes and anti-VEGF injection only in one eye (proliferative diabetic retinopathy group, n=14). In the study visit, all patients underwent optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging protocol. Choroidal segmentation was performed manually. The medium CT in central macular area (CCT) and the CT in centrofoveal B-scan were obtained automatically.

The study authors noted that 25 eyes treated with anti-VEGF showed a reduction on CCT (p=0.002) and subfoveal CT (p=0.004), compared with the fellow eyes treated with laser only. They also found that independent evaluation of PDR group revealed similar results (CCT, p=0.02; subfoveal CT, p=0.03). In nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy + diabetic macular edema group, CCT was also significantly thinner in eyes treated with anti-VEGF (p=0.04). A correlation between the number of injections and a thinner CT was found in this group (p=0.03) and in the evaluation of all eyes together (p=0.03).

In conclusion, diabetic eyes treated with anti-VEGF agents have reduced CT.

Source: Laíns I, Figueira J, Santos AR, et al. Choroidal thickness in diabetic retionpathy: The influence of antiangiogenic therapy. Retina. 2014;34(6):1199–1207.

SD-OCT Predictors of Visual Outcome in Diabetic CME After Injection with Bevacizumab

Investigators aimed to examine prognostic spectral domain optical coherence tomography parameters in diabetic cystoid macular edema after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy.

Their retrospective cohort study included 49 eyes with the new-onset diabetic CME that had to have a macular SD-OCT and fluorescein angiography at presentation. They analyzed the baseline OCT scans for variables indicative of the extent of retinal involvement by the cystoid change and its location about the center. They also performed univariate and multivariate analyses comparing the OCT findings between the two groups of eyes: the “No Improvement” and the “Improvement” groups, based on at least two Snellen lines improvement after treatment.

According to the investigators, there were 30 and 19 eyes in the No Improvement and Improvement groups, respectively. In the univariate analysis, the baseline OCT parameters associated with visual improvement included the photoreceptor inner segments thickness centrally (p=0.009) and within the central 1-mm subfield (p<0.0001), and the presence of bridging retinal processes centrally (p=0.004). Multivariate analysis showed both presence and central location of bridging retinal processes within the central 1-mm subfield to be significantly associated with visual improvement (p=0.041 and 0.005, respectively), with an odds ratio of 13.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.336 to 636.18; p=0.010) for their central location.

The study investigators concluded that, in diabetic CME, visual improvement after anti-VEGF therapy is more likely to occur in eyes with residual central retinal processes on baseline macular spectral domain OCT. This finding may be helpful in patient counseling, case selection and clinical trial planning.

Source: Al Faran A, Mousa A, Al Shamsi H, et al. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography predictors of visual outcome in diabetic cystoid macular edema after bevacizumab injection. Retina. 2014;34(6):1208–1215.

Relationship Between Oral Fluoroquinolones and Incidence of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment and Symptomatic Retinal Breaks

In an effort to examine whether oral fluoroquinolone antibiotics are associated with an increase in subsequent rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and symptomatic retinal breaks in a large population-based cohort, the study below was conducted. It included adult residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, who were prescribed oral fluoroquinolone medications from January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2011. Comparison cohorts consisted of patients prescribed oral macrolide and β-lactam antibiotics during the study period.

Procedure codes were used to identify retinal detachment repair and prophylaxis procedures occurring within one year of prescription dates. Travel clinic, pro re nata, and self-treatment prescriptions were excluded. Patients with tractional retinal detachment, previous retinal detachment repair, endophthalmitis and necrotizing retinitis were excluded, as were those with intraocular surgery or severe head/eye trauma ≤90 days before the procedure. Rates of retinal detachment repair and prophylaxis procedures within seven, 30, 90 and 365 days of the first prescription were calculated and compared between antibiotic prescription cohorts using chi-square tests. Retinal detachment repair rates also were compared with the expected Olmsted County, Minnesota, rates using the one-sample log-rank test.

Oral fluoroquinolones were prescribed for 38,046 patients (macrolide n=48,074, β-lactam n=69,079) during the study period. Retinal detachment repair procedures were performed within 365 days of the first prescription in 0.03% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01 to 0.06) of the fluoroquinolone cohort, 0.02% (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.03) of the macrolide cohort, and 0.03% (95% CI, 0.02 to 0.05) of the β-lactam cohort (p>0.05). Retinal detachment prophylaxis procedures for symptomatic retinal breaks were performed within 365 days of the first prescription in 0.01% (95% CI, 0.00 to 0.03) of the fluoroquinolone cohort, 0.02% (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.04) of the macrolide cohort, and 0.02% (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.04) of the β-lactam cohort (p>0.05). Similar comparisons of treatment rates within seven, 30 and 90 days of the first prescription were all insignificant between cohorts. Post-fluoroquinolone retinal detachment repair rates were similar to expected rates (36.8 per 100 000/year vs. 28.8 per 100 000/year for age- and sex-matched historical rates, p=0.35).

To conclude, oral fluoroquinolone use was not associated with an increased risk of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment or symptomatic retinal breaks in this population-based study.

Source: Kapoor KG, Hodge DO, St. Sauver JL, Barkmeier AJ. Oral fluoroquinolones and the incidence of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and symptomatic retinal breaks: a population-based study. Ophthalmology. 2014;121(6):1269–1273.

12-Month Outcomes with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis

In Italy, researchers performed the following interventional case series to study the anatomic and functional outcomes of Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System implantation in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

The study population included six patients with visual acuity no better than light perception. After the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System was implanted, the researchers studied complications, as well as anatomic and functional results. The main outcome measures were mobility, square localization, direction of motion, grating visual acuity, and Goldmann visual field, all of which were assessed. Optical coherence tomography was performed.

According to the study researchers, implantation of the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System was safely performed in all patients. They noted that one patient experienced postoperative elevation in intraocular pressure, which was controlled medically. Also, they reported that in one patient, moderate detachment of the choroid occurred postoperatively, and it resolved spontaneously. One patient withdrew from the study. The researchers did not observe wound dehiscence, endophthalmitis or retinal detachment. All patients were able to locate a bright light on the ceiling and a dark line on the floor after the surgery. Performance in square localization tests improved in four patients, and direction of motion improved in three patients. One patient achieved grating visual acuity. Goldmann visual field test results improved in all patients.

The patients showed improvement in visual tasks after the surgery, and the device was well-tolerated and functional over a one-year follow-up period. A rigorous patient-selection process is necessary to maximize patient compliance with the rigorous follow-up testing schedule. Both patients and medical staff should be prepared for a lengthy, arduous rehabilitation process.

Source: Rizzo S, Belting C, Cinelli L, et al. The Argus II retinal prosthesis: 12-month outcomes from a single-study center. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014; 157(6):1282–1290.


CenterVue Receives FDA Clearance of Next-Generation Macular Integrity Assessment

CenterVue Inc. has been granted FDA 510(k) clearance for its next-generation Macular Integrity Assessment (MAIA). The company says MAIA offers the latest advances in scanning laser ophthalmoscopy confocal microperimetry and is intended for measuring macular sensitivity, fixation stability and the focus of the fixation, as well as providing infrared retinal imaging. The additional functions and improved features of the newly enhanced version of the MAIA yield faster examinations. The differences between the redesigned MAIA and its predecessor include: external redesign that is more ergonomic and features a smaller footprint; a more powerful PC; new automatic alignment; and dynamic multifixation.

Source: CenterVue Inc., June 2014.

Roslin Cells and Pfizer Sign Cell Therapy Manufacturing Contract

Roslin Cells has signed a contract with Pfizer Inc. (acting through Neusentis, a Cambridge, UK, research unit of Pfizer), to support the manufacture of retinal pigment epithelium cells to be used in a cell therapy clinical trial that will evaluate the therapy for the treatment of patients suffering from age-related macular degeneration. The trial is part of an ongoing collaboration with The London Project at the Institute of Ophthalmology, UCL.

Source: Roslin Cells, May 2014.

Clinical Trial in AMD Advanced to Final Cohort

StemCells Inc. has transplanted its proprietary HuCNS-SC (purified human neural stem cells) into the first five patients in the final cohort of its 16-patient Phase I/II trial for geographic atrophy of age-related macular degeneration. According to the company, each of the eight patients in this second cohort will receive a dose of 1 million stem cells into the most affected eye. The Phase I/II trial is divided into two sequential cohorts and evaluates the safety and preliminary efficacy of HuCNS-SC cells as a treatment for dry AMD. Subjects are enrolled into each cohort based on best-corrected visual acuity, as determined by the Electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study acuity test. Four subjects with BCVA of ≤20/400 in the study eye were enrolled in cohort one and transplanted with 200,000 stem cells. Cohort one also consists of four subjects who have been transplanted with 1 million cells. Cohort two will consist of eight subjects who will undergo transplant with 1 million cells. Evaluations are being performed at predetermined intervals over a one-year period to assess safety and signs of vision improvement; patients will be followed for an additional four years in a separate observational study. For more information about the trial, visit StemCells Inc.'s website.

Source: StemCells Inc., May 2014.

2RT Pilot Study Continues to Generate Positive Clinical and Scientific Results

The 24-month follow-up of the pilot study to investigate the efficacy of Ellex Medical Lasers Limited's proprietary Retinal Rejuvenation Therapy (2RT) in the treatment of early age-related macular degeneration have been released and were published in a summary form at the recent Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology 2014 conference in Orlando. In the pilot study, 51 patients with intermediate AMD received a single treatment to one eye with the 2RT laser and drusen area in each eye was graded at baseline, 12 and 24 months later. The 2RT laser treatment reduced drusen area in 35% to 40% of eyes following 12 and 24 months (compared to 5% to 11% of eyes in a natural history cohort), which is consistent with the outcome of the 12-month data. Get more details here.

Source: Ellex Medical Lasers Limited, May 2014.

Ophthotech Enters into Ex-U.S. Licensing and Commercialization Agreement with Novartis for Fovista

Ophthotech Corp. recently announced that it has entered into an ex-U.S. licensing and commercialization agreement with Novartis Pharmaceuticals focused on the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration. Under the agreement, Ophthotech grants Novartis exclusive rights to commercialize Ophthotech's lead product candidate, the anti-platelet derived growth factor agent Fovista, in markets outside the United States while Ophthotech retains sole rights to commercialize Fovista in the United States. Ophthotech will continue to lead the global Fovista Phase III web AMD pivotal clinical program, as well as its lead role in the potential registration of Fovista in the United States, while both companies will collaborate to seek regulatory approvals outside the United States. For more details on this new partnership, click here.

Source: Ophthotech Corp., May 2014.

Ohr Pharmaceutical Completes Acquisition of SKS Ocular

Ohr Pharmaceutical Inc. has reported the closing of its previously announced acquisition of the assets of SKS Ocular LLC. In connection with the transaction, three of SKS Ocular's cofounders (Jason Slakter, MD; Glenn L. Stoller; and Peter K. Kaiser, MD) have been appointed to senior management and advisory roles at Ohr. Along with the acquisition of SKS, Ohr completed a holding company reorganization in which it merged with a wholly owned subsidiary and a new parent corporation succeeded Ohr as a public holding company under the same name.

Source: Ohr Pharmaceutical Inc., June 2014.


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